Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων·
- ἄρχων looks genitive plural but it actually is nominative singular (cf. MBG p. 196). With what is it in apposition?
- Ἰουδαίων is a genitive of subordination (GGBB p. 103).
οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ῥαββί, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος· οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεὶς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ’ αὐτοῦ.
- νυκτὸς is a genitive of time (GGBB p. 122).
- What case is ῥαββί?
- ἐὰν μή is an idiom meaning “unless…”
οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος
There are two ellipses in this speech of Nicodemus.
- You need to assume ει in, “we know that [you are] a teacher…”
- You need to assume a relative pronoun “…[who] has come from God.”
ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος
- This clause is the DO of οἴδαμεν.
- What kind of infinitive is ποιεῖν?
- What kind of clause is ἃ σὺ ποιεὶς? What word does it modify? What is the DMW?
- What kind of clause is ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ’ αὐτοῦ? What word does it modify? What is the DMW?
- What is the lexical form of ᾖ?
ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ.
- What kind of infinitive is ἰδεῖν?
- Of what is βασιλείαν the object?
- Abbott says ἄνωθεν is the most important adverb in John.
Evolution of γεννηθῇ:
εγεννα no augment in subjunctive mood (principle 13)
γενναθη tense formative
γεννηθη principle 12
γεννηθηη lengthened connecting vowel for subjunctive
γεννηθηηι add the verb ending
γεννηθηι contraction (BBG p. 343)
γεννηθῇ the iota subscripts
λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος· πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὤν; μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι;.
- What kind of infinitive is γεννηθῆναι?
- ὤν is an adverbial participle showing time (answering the when? question). γέρων is a noun meaning “old man”. The clause should be translated “…when he is an old man.“
- How is principle 26 relevant to this verse? cf. RWP.
ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ.
τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμα ἐστιν.
μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπον σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν.
- Why μὴ here?
- How do you know that θαυμάσῃς is subjunctive?
- The subjunctive is here used as a prohibition (BBG 33.18.4).
τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ καὶ τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ’ οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει· οὕτως ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεὐματος.
- ὅπου is a DMW; a subordinating conjunction. What adverbial question does it answer?
- πνεῦμα is the subject of πνει. ὅπου θέλει is a dependent clause modifying πνει.
- οἶδας has two objects, πόθεν ἔρχεται and ποῦ ὑπάγει. Both are dependent clauses. Why can’t they be phrases?
- Which adverbial question does οὕτως answer?
ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καῖ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις;
Note what RWP says about the articles in this verse.