Greek I; Lesson 9

John 1:18

Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε·


This word is a merger between ουδε and the number εις.  Don’t confuse εις with the preposition of the same spelling. The numeral εις is inflected; this being the nominative singular form of ουδεις. It is translated “No one…”



This verb is from οραω. Even though this verb is highly irregular, there are a few clues you should pick up on:

The only difficult thing here is figuring out the lexical form. For this, you should use some kind of Bible software or this.  Optional: If you want to understand the εω and you are feeling sufficiently brave, feel free to read footnote #1 on page 270 of MBG.



What part of speech is πώποτε Remember the adverbial questions? the adjectival questions?


μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν είς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.

μονογενης is an adjective modifying θεος.


ὁ ὢν είς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς

This entire set of words is a participial phrase. ων is the participle (from the verb ειμι)  Is it articular?  Why does this matter?  Which noun is this phrase modifying?

Inside this participial phrase is the prepositional phrase είς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς.  What word is this phrase modifying?  κολπον is a noun functioning as the OP of είς.



Watch εξηγησατο evolve:

ηγε-                stem
εξηγε               preposition + stem = compound verb
εξεηγε              add the augment
εξηγε                contraction
εξηγεσα            add the tense formative
εξηγησα            principle 12
εξηγησατο         add the verb ending

In your English translation, you will need to supply a DO; “…that One revealed [Him].”  Who is the antecedent of εκεινος?


John 1:19

Καὶ αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Ἰωάννου,

How do you know that αὕτη is not from αυτος?

Is Ιωαννου an objective genitive or a subjective genitive?


ὅτε ἀπέστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων ἱερεῖς καὶ Λευίτας

οτε is a DMW.  What kind?  Why does it matter?



The verb ἀπέστειλαν undergoes some interesting changes which we will not take time for now.  You should recognize the augment and the third plural ending (which you also could have gathered from the fact that Ἰουδαῖοι is the subject).

στελ-               the stem
αποστελ-        add the preposition
απεστελ-         add the augment
απεστελα        tense formative (why not σα?)
απεστειλα       the epsilon vowel lengthens to ει (MBG 300)
απεστειλαν      verb ending


ἵνα ἐρωτήσωσιν αὐτὸν· σὺ τίς εἶ;

How does principle 27 apply to this verse?

In Greek, a semi-colon is a question mark.

What is the lexical form of ει?

Here is the evolution of ἐρωτήσωσιν:

ἐρωτα-               stem
ἐρωτασα             tense formative
ἐρωτησα              principle 12
ἐρωτησαω            lengthened connecting vowel (cf. subjunctive mood)
ἐρωτησω               contraction
ἐρωτησωσι            verb ending
ἐρωτησωσιν           movable nu

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