πάντα δι’ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο
παντα means “all” or “every” and is usually translated with a noun as “all things”. Pay careful attention to the ending since this is how you tell what case it is. Once you know what case it is, you will know what its function is in the sentence. This adjective can be:
- accusative singular masculine
- nominative plural neuter
- accusative plural neuter
A prepositional phrase. δια means “through” and αυτου means “him”. We know that a prepositional phrase can function either:
This phrase is adverbial which means it must be modifying some verb. This phrase is modifying the verb εγενετο.
- The preposition is δια. The reason the “α” fell off is because the next word begins with a vowel. The apostrophe marks the elision.
- αυτου is from αυτος. It means “him” since it is the OP of δια.
- The αυ is pronounced as the ou in “house”.
- The ου is pronounced like the ou in “group”. Both are dipthongs.
- Notice the ου ending. Compare this to the article paradigm (which you should memorize immediately and perfectly). If you know the article paradigm, you will quickly see that this ending marks this pronoun as genitive singular.
verb stem + verb ending
augment + verb stem + tense formative + verb ending.
Other aorists (called “second aorists“) have three parts:
augment + verb stem (with a spelling change!) + verb ending.
This has the potential to be very confusing. Try to slow down and understand this. Ask for help if you need.
In this case, εγενετο follows the second aorist pattern. Notice the differences in this table:
|present tense||aorist tense|
|stem is γιν-||stem is γεν-|
|Takes primary endings (no augment)||Takes secondary endings (yes augment)|
|Translate into the English present tense||Translate into the English past tense|
|γινομαι – I become||εγενομην – I became|
|γινει – you become||εγενου – you became|
|γινεται – he/she/it becomes||εγενετο – he/she/it became|
|γινόμεθα – we become||εγενομεθα – we became|
|γινεσθε – you become||εγενεσθε – you became|
|γινονται – they become||εγενοντο – they became|
Looking at εγενετο, we see four parts:
|Augment||Stem||Connecting Vowel||Verb Ending|
καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. ὃ γέγονεν
- χωρις means “without”. It is a preposition. Its OP is αυτου.
- Every prepositional phrase is either adverbial or adjectival. This phrase is adverbial answering the “how?” question.
- Memorize the adjectival and adverbial questions!
ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν
- ουδε means “not”.
- Be sure to note the difference between ἕν and ἐν. The former is the numeral one and is pronounced “hen”.
- Numbers are adjectives answering “how many?”. Just as you did before, you will often have to supply the noun it is modifying. Here you will translate “one thing”.
- ὃ is a relative pronoun which is a DMW. Hence, we know a dependent clause is coming. We know that every clause has its own subject/verb. In this case, ὃ is the subject and γέγονεν is the verb.
- γεγονεν is a form of γινομαι (just like εγενετο). You can clearly see the reduplication which marks this verb as perfect tense.
stem is γιν-
|stem is γεν-||
stem is γον-
|Takes primary endings (no augment)||Takes secondary endings (yes augment)||Takes primary endings (no augment)|
|Translate into the English present tense||Translate into the English simple past tense||Translate into the English perfect tense|
|γινομαι – I become||εγενομην- I became||γεγονα- I have become|
|γινει – you become||εγενου- you became||γεγονας- you have become|
|γινεται – he/she/it becomes||εγενετο – he/she/it became||γεγονε(ν) – he/she/it has become|
|γινόμεθα – we become||εγενομεθα we became||γεγοναμεν we have become|
|γινεσθε – you become||εγενεσθε you became||γεγονατε you have become|
|γινονται – they become||εγενοντο they became||γεγονασι they have become|
ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων:
A prepositional phrase translated as “in him”. Be able to find the preposition and its OP. From your knowledge of the article, you can easily parse this. Another huge clue is the iota subscript which almost always means dative, singular.
- What is the mark under the omega?
- What is the mark above the omega?
- Is this phrase adverbial or adjectival?
- What case must it be (principle 1)?
ην is from ειμι.
- What tense is it?
καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς
και is a FANBOYS.
Look at the article before ζωη.
- What case is it?
- In light of this, what case must ζωη be?
- In light of its case, what is the function of ζωη in this sentence?
Isn’t principle 7 great?!
- What case is των? What case is ανθρωπων (principle 7).
- Translate genitive nouns into English using the key word “of” (BBG 7.4).
- What number is ανθρωπων? Should it be translated “man” or “men”?