Greek I; lesson 11

John 1:20

καὶ ὡμολόγησεν καὶ οὐκ ἠρνήσατο,


Note the -εν ending on ωμολογησεν which is a great help in parsing.

ομολογε-             stem
ωμολογε             add the augment
ωμολογεσε         add the tense formative
ωμολογησε         principle 12
ωμολογησεν       add a movable nu


αρνε-              stem
ηρνε               add the augment
ηρνεσα           add the tense formative
ηρνησα         principle 12
ηρνησατο       add the verb ending


καὶ ὡμολόγησεν ὅτι ἐγὼ ούκ εἰμὶ ὁ χριστός.

ὅτι ἐγὼ ούκ εἰμὶ ὁ χριστός is a clause that is functioning as a noun. It is the DO of the verb ωμολογησεν.

How does principle 2 apply?

What case is χριστός?   What is its functionIs it a DO?

Note that oτι is a DMW and is often used to introduce direct discourse. In this case, it is simply translated with quotation marks.


John 1:21

καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτόν· τί οὖν;


ερωτα-              stem
ηρωτα               augment
ηρωτασα           tense formative
ηρωτησα            principle 12
ηρωτησαν           verb ending


τί οὖν;

notice the question mark (BBG 4.1).

τι is an interrogative pronoun.  What case?  number?  gender?   How does this differ from the indefinite pronoun?


σὺ Ἠλίας εἶ; καὶ λέγει· οὐκ εἰμί. ὁ προφήτης εἶ σύ; καὶ ἀπεκρίθη· οὔ.

Without looking at the spelling, what case must ηλιας be?  What kind of verb is ει?   What kind of sentences are these?



κριν-                   stem
αποκριν              preposition + stem = compound verb
απεκριν              add the augment
απεκρινθη          add the tense formative
απεκριθη            τhe ν in κρινω falls off before the tense formative
απεκριθη             add the verb ending


John 1:22

εἶπαν οὖν αὐτῷ· τίς εἶ; ἵνα ἀπόκρισιν δῶμεν τοῖς πέμψασιν ἡμᾶς·

The lexical form of δωμεν is διδωμι.

Suppose you forgot how to parse αποκρισιν. You can tell from the context that this is likely the DO of δωμεν.  How does that help you determine its case?



πεμπ-               stem
πεμπσα             add the tense formative
πεμπσαντ          add the participle morpheme
πεμψαντ            square of stops
πεμψαντσι         add the third declension case ending
πεμψασι              the ντ drops out (BBG p. 260)
πεμψασιν            add a movable nu

Translating πεμψασιν:

πεμψασιν is a verbal, not a verb. There are two kinds of verbals in Greek, participles and infinitives. This is clearly a participle. It is also articular and hence must be adjectival. An adjectival participle can be attributive or substantival (learn the flow chart on this page). This one is substantival since this participle is clearly the indirect object (hence the dative case) of the verb δωμεν.  To translate πεμψασιν, use a dependent clause with “who” or “which” as your DMW.   “…so that we might give an answer to those who sent us.”

The subject of the above sentence is an understood “we”.
The verb is δωμεν with αποκρισιν as its DO and πεμψασιν as its IO.
ημας is the object of the participle πεμψασιν.


τί λέγεις περὶ σεαυτοῦ;.

How do you know τι here is an interrogative pronoun?

What is a reflexive pronoun?  σεαυτου is a second person reflexive pronoun.




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